On 6 October, he abdicated his Neapolitan and Sicilian titles in favour of his third son, because his eldest son Philip had been excluded from succession due to illnesses and his second son Charles was heir-apparent to the Spanish throne. At that time, the Master of the Order of Calatrava made a raid on the border and obtained considerable booty, and on 13 March 1309 the Bishop of Cartagena, with the approval of the cathedral chapter of Cartagena, seized the city and of the castle of Lubrín, that later would be donated to him by Ferdinand IV. After a camp battle, Juan Núñez II de Lara managed to escape from the siege to which Aranda de Duero was intended to be subjected, and met Diego López V de Haro and his son, and agreed to declare the war on Ferdinand IV separately in their respective domains. Ferdinand IV, (born December 6, 1285, Sevilla—died September 7, 1312, Jaén, Andalusia), king of Castile and Leon, succeeding his father, Sancho IV, in 1295. As the day of the thirty-day period that the knights he killed placed him, he wanted to leave for Alcaudete, that his brother the infante Peter had taken the Moors, ate early, and lay down to sleep, which was in summer; and when they came to awaken him, they found him dead in bed, that no one should see him die. In the meanwhile, Ferdinand IV begged his mother to put peace between him and the magnates who supported Henry of Castile, who again begged the Dowager Queen to support the Henry's plan, to which she refused. A regency council presided over by the Tuscan Bernardo Tanucci was set up. But Ferdinand continued to reign over the latter kingdom (becoming the first King of Sicily in centuries to actually reside there) under British protection. On 27 July 1309, a part of the Castilian-Leonese army was found before the walls of the city of Algeciras, and three days later, on 30 July, arrived Ferdinand IV and John of Castile accompanied by numerous ricoshombres. Pope Clement V, by the bull "Prioribus, decanis" issued on 29 April 1309 in the city of Avignon, granted Ferdinand IV a tenth of all the ecclesiastical revenues of his Kingdoms for three years, in order to contribute to the maintenance of the war against the Kingdom of Granada. At that time, and also for the rest of his reign, his mother tried to placate the nobility, confronted her son's enemies, and repeatedly prevented Ferdinand IV from being dethroned. This plan, which would have meant the disintegration of the Kingdom of Castile and León, as well as the forced resignation of Ferdinand IV to the throne, was rejected by the Dowager Queen, who refused to support the project and to participate in the Meeting of Ariza. The King ceded to John of Castile the municipality of Ponferrada, with the condition that he didn't establish any type of alliance with Juan Núñez II de Lara, although he didn't fulfill his word before eight days of the signing of the Concord. After the signing of the Treaty of Alcalá de Henares, the Kings of Castile and Aragon sent ambassadors to the Court of Avignon, in order to request Pope Clement V to grant the condition of Crusade to the fight against the Muslims in the south of the Iberian Peninsula, and to grant the necessary dispensation for the marriage between Eleanor of Castile and James of Aragon, to which the Pope acceded, because such necessary dispensation was granted before the arrival of the ambassadors to Avignon. In mid-October 1309, John of Castile, his son Alfonso de Valencia, Juan Manuel of Villena and Fernán Ruiz de Saldaña, deserted and left the Christian camp located before Algeciras, being accompanied in their flight by others 500 knights. [2], Tanucci, who attempted to thwart her, was dismissed in 1777. In the long term, the consequences of this treaty were long lasting, since the border between the two kingdoms was hardly modified in the course of the later centuries, becoming one of the longest frontiers of the European continent. For his part, Diego López V de Haro would retain the Lordship of Biscay, Orduña, Valmaseda, Las Encartaciones, and Durango. In the winter of 1305, during the visit of Ferdinand IV in the city of Guadalajara, the monarch received the homage of his cousin Ferdinand de la Cerda, who acted on behalf of his older brother, Alfonso de la Cerda, who stated through his brother that he had received the castles and lordships that were awarded to him in the Treaty of Torrellas, and paid homage to Ferdinand IV for the first time. Juan Manuel of Villena remained loyal to Ferdinand IV, because on 15 October the King had given him all the royal pechos (tributes) and rights of Valdemoro and Rabrido, except for the moneda forera of both places and the martiniega (another tribute) de Rabrido, which had been granted to Alfonso de la Cerda. Ferdinand died in Naples in January 1825. Historian and archaeologist Francisco Simón y Nieto, in his book Una página del reinado de Fernando IV. In mid-1311, John of Castile and the principal magnates of the Kingdom threatened Ferdinand IV by ceasing to serve him, if the monarch didn't satisfy their requests. The Seigneury of Villena continued in the hands of Prince Juan Manuel, but the lands in which it was settled would remain under Aragonese sovereignty. During the illness of Ferdinand IV discrepancies arose between the Infante Peter, Juan Núñez II de Lara, John of Castile and don Juan Manuel. Shortly afterwards, the Lord of Biscay again appealed to the Pope. In the Cortes de Valladolid in 1307, when María de Molina saw that the ricoshombres, led by John of Castile, protested against the measures taken by the King's privates, she tried, in order to please John of Castile, to put an definitive end over the possession of the Lordship of Biscay. King Ferdinand , using rigorous justice, made the two brothers arrest, and thrown from top of the Rock of Martos; before they were thrown out they said that God was their witness and knew the truth that they were not guilty in that death, and that the King ordered them to be kill without reason, that he was summoned from that day that they died in thirty days that he should appear with them in judgment before God. However, he soon used the royal symbols again, contrary to what was agreed in Torrellas. At the beginning of 1303 there was a planned meeting between King Denis of Portugal and Ferdinand IV, where the Castilian monarch hoped that his cousin and father-in-law the Portuguese monarch would return to him some territory. In January 1304, when the King was in Carrión de los Condes, John of Castile claimed again, in the name of his wife, and supported by Juan Núñez II de Lara, the Lordship of Biscay, although the monarch at first resolved that John of Castile's wife be satisfied with receiving Paredes de Nava and Villalón de Campos as compensation, to which John of Castile refused, arguing that his wife would not accept this for disagreeing with the previous pacts established by her husband in relation to The Lordship of Biscay. However, the Portuguese sovereign refused to attack him and, in common agreement with Henry of Castile, both planned that Ferdinand IV reached a peace agreement with John of Castile, under which the latter kept the Kingdom of Galicia, the city of León, and all the towns that he had conquered only during his lifetime, and at his death, all those territories would pass to Ferdinand IV. Therefore, James II of Aragon and the Denis of Portugal both agreed to maintain good relations with the Sultan of Granada.[15]. Sick of gravity, Ferdinand IV left the siege of Alcaudete and went to the city of Jaén at the end of August 1312. At the same time, in the Treaty of Alcañices the projected marriage between Ferdinand IV and the Infanta Constance of Portugal was confirmed as well as the betrothal of Afonso of Portugal, heir to the throne of Portugal, and Infanta Beatrice, sister of Ferdinand IV. On 13 July 1312, the King arrived in Toledo, after leaving the Infante Alfonso, heir to the throne, in the city of Ávila, and went to the province of Jaén, where his brother Infante Peter of Castile was besieging the town of Alcaudete. The King left Jaén, and went to Martos, and being and ordered to kill two knights who were in his house, because they were blamed for the death of a knight who was say they killed when the King was in Palencia, after leaving the house of the King one night, namedh Juan Alonso de Benavides. Citizens affected by the change of sovereignty would be free to stay in their cities and towns if they wished, or they could freely leave the territory. On the way to Burgos, Ferdinand IV stopped in the city of Toledo and confessed to Juan Núñez II de Lara that he planned to arrest or assassinate John of Castile, because he thought that if he still live, he would harm and hinder him in all his purposes. At that time was accentuated the rivalry existed between Henry of Castile, María de Molina and Diego López V de Haro on one side, and John of Castile and Juan Núñez II de Lara on the other side. Immediately after, the King went to Alcalá de Henares. Once was knew the agreement about the possession of the Lordship of Biscay, Juan Núñez II de Lara felt despised by both the King and his mother, and he suddenly leave the Cortes before they had finalized. In 1729 works for the completion of the Church of Saint Hippolytus were begun, which were terminated in 1736, and on the night of 8 August 1736, with all honors, the mortal remains of Ferdinand IV and Alfonso XI were transferred to the Royal Collegiate Church of Saint Hippolytus, where they rest since then. The king, and above all the queen, were particularly anxious that no mercy should be shown to the rebels, and Maria Carolina (a sister of the executed Marie Antoinette) made use of Lady Hamilton, Nelson's mistress, to induce Nelson to carry out her vengeance. Meanwhile, the Dowager Queen send troops to rescue Lorca, besieged by the King of Aragon, while in August of the same year, the troops of the Castilian king surrounded Palenzuela. Ferdinand IV tried to put order in the affairs of his domains, as well as to reach a budgetary balance and to reorganize the administration of the Court, while trying to reduce the attributions of John of Castile, aspect this last who proved to be impossible for the monarch.[17]. He marched with his army against the French and entered Rome (29 November), but on the defeat of some of his columns he hurried back to Naples, and on the approach of the French, fled on 23 December 1798 aboard Nelson's ship HMS Vanguard to Palermo, Sicily, leaving his capital in a state of anarchy.[3][2]. The supporters and vassals of John of Castile, fearing the wrath of the King, prepared to defend him, among them Sancho of Castile and Juan Alfonso de Haro. Ferdinand IV and James II both agree to contribute with ten galleys each for the expedition. In September 1312, shortly after his death, the mortal remains of Ferdinand IV were transferred to the city of Córdoba, and on 13 September they were buried in a chapel of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, although his corpse should have been buried in the Toledo Cathedral next to his father Sancho IV or in Seville Cathedral with his paternal grandfather Alfonso X and his paternal great-grandfather Ferdinand III. Ferdinand IV died aged 26, and when he died he left an only 1-year-old son, who would reign as Alfonso XI of Castile. The granting to the kingdom of Aragon of such a large part of the Kingdom of Granada caused that John of Castile and Juan Manuel of Villena protested against the ratification of the Treaty, although their protests had no consequences. JUAN DE MARIANA. Murcia. In order to solve the inconveniences derived from the distribution of the Murcia territory, and to other minor questions, was agreed a meeting between Ferdinand IV and James II of Aragon in the Monastery of Santa María de Huerta, located in the Province of Soria. Ferdinand was born in the city of Seville on 6 December 1285 as the second child and eldest son of King Sancho IV of Castile and his wife María de Molina. The King then made his mother reconcile with Juan Núñez II de Lara, while were initiated the maneuvers for the Treaty of Torrellas, signed in 1304, in which Diego López V de Haro didn't take part because he was distanced from Ferdinand IV, who promised to John of Castile to give him the Lordship of Biscay, and to Juan Núñez II de Lara La Bureba and the possessions of Diego López V de Haro in La Rioja, if both resolved the diplomatic negotiations with Aragon following the desire of the monarch. The demands presented by the magnates were accepted by the monarch. King Ferdinand IV at the royal palace … In June 1301, during the Cortes de Zamora, John of Castile and the ricoshombres of Léon, Galicia and Asturias, supporters mostly of the John, approved the subsidies demanded by the Crown. He realized that two days before the time was over he felt angry, ate meat and drank wine. Pedro I of Castile (1334-1369) 4. The now Dowager Queen was in charge of the regency of her 9-years-old son. While John of Castile and Juan Núñez II de Lara waited for the arrival of the King of Portugal with his troops to join them in the siege of the city of Valladolid, where the Dowager Queen María de Molina and Ferdinand IV took refuge, the Aragonese monarch attacked Murcia and Soria, and King Denis of Portugal attacked along the line of Douro river, while Diego López V de Haro sowed disorder in his Lordship of Biscay. The claims (presented by the plaintiffs in the called Meeting of Grijota) were that the sovereign granted the merindad of Galicia to Rodrigo Álvarez de las Asturias and the merindad of Castile to Fernán Ruiz de Saldaña and the expel from the court of his privates Sancho Sánchez de Velasco, Diego García and Fernán Gómez de Toledo. Until that moment, the remains of both monarchs were placed in two wooden coffins in the presbytery of the church, where they were shown to distinguished visitors. Following the Austrian victory, the Parliament was dismissed and Ferdinand suppressed the Liberals and Carbonari. It is these knights, when the King ordered them to be killed, seeing that they were killed with treason, they said that they would summoned the King that he would appear before God with them on a trial after thirty days from that moment. Within a year of the monarch's death, four candles burned permanently in his grave, and daily, during that year, the bishop of the city and the cathedral chapter sang once a day prays for the soul of the King. In the meanwhile, in Galicia, the Infante Philip of Castile, brother of Fernando IV, defeated in a battle his brother-in-law Fernando Rodríguez de Castro (husband of Violante Sánchez, illegitimate daughter of Sancho IV of Castile) who lost his life in that battle.[14]. His vassals gave little evidence of mourning for him, and when the Dowager Queen learned of it, she ordered that a brocade cloth be placed on the coffin, and that all the clerics and nobles present in Valladolid should attend the funerals. … After this, John of Castile returned to the King the towns of Paredes de Nava, Cabreros, Medina de Rioseco, Castronuño and Mansilla. However, while the Dowager Queen met the Councils and obstructed the intentions of Henry of Castile, he became seriously ill and had to be transferred to his village of Roa. In November 1310, both brothers went to Córdoba, where a popular uprising had taken place against several knights of the city. This action, motivated by the fact that Ferdinand IV owed them certain sums of money for the payment of their soldiers, provoked the indignation of the European courts and the protest of James II of Aragon, who tried to persuade the deserters, though unsuccessfully, to return to the siege of Algeciras. In January 1310 Ferdinand IV decided to negotiate with the Granadians, who sent the arráez of Andarax as an emissary to the Christian camp. With the agreement also tried to put an end to the claims of Alfonso de la Cerda, pretender to the Castilian-Leonese throne. At the hotel, each room comes with a wardrobe. King Ferdinand IV of Castile, who took Gibraltar, was in Martos, and were acussed before him two knights, called the one Pedro Carbajal and the other Juan Alfonso de Carbajal, his brother, who both belonged to his court, that a night, while the King was in Palencia, they killed a knight named Gómez de Benavides, loved very much by the King, giving many indications and presumptions because it seemed that they had been killed him. Rule in Naples interrupted during two periods: consort to an Infanta naturalized as a Spanish Infante, Odoardo Farnese, Hereditary Prince of Parma, "Le origini dello stemma delle Due Sicilie, Ferdinando IV, poi I", Infante Pedro Carlos, Infante of Portugal, Infante Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime, England expects that every man will do his duty, Maria Isabella, Queen of the Two Sicilies, Amelia Philippina, Princess Adalbert of Bavaria, Princess Maria Antonia of Naples and Sicily, Princess Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, Maria Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier, María de la Paz, Princess Ludwig of Bavaria, Maria Teresa, Princess and Duchess of Bavaria, Inés María, Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Infanta Cristina, Duchess of Palma de Mallorca, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ferdinand_I_of_the_Two_Sicilies&oldid=979607648, Monarchs of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Knights of the Order of Saint Ferdinand and of Merit, Supernumerary Knights of the Order of the Holy Spirit, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ferdinando Antonio Pasquale Giovanni Nepomuceno Serafino Gennaro Benedetto di Borbone, By Maria Carolina of Austria (Vienna, 13 August 1752 – Vienna, 8 September 1814), Died in childhood (died of exhaustion on board HMS, Heraldry of Ferdinand of Naples, Sicily and the Two Sicilies, María Luisa, Duchess of San Fernando de Quiroga, Isabella Alfonsa, Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, This page was last edited on 21 September 2020, at 18:11. Ferdinand IV of Castile From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ferdinand IV, El Emplazado or "the Summoned," (December 6, 1285 September 7, 1312) was a king of Castile (1295 - 1312). Crónicas de los Reyes de Castilla Fernando III, Alfonso X, Sancho IV y Fernando IV (1248-1305) (2ª ed.). In January 1305, Ferdinand IV —still in Guadalajara but with the Dowager Queen, John of Castile, Juan Manuel of Villena, Juan Núñez II de Lara, Diego López V de Haro and Juan Alfonso de Haro—, requested again to Diego López V de Haro the return of the Lordship of Biscay to his niece María I Díaz de Haro, but he refused. The success of the military revolution at Naples seriously alarmed the powers of the Holy Alliance, who feared that it might spread to other Italian states and so lead to a general European conflagration. The King went to Palencia, where his mother was, who advised him that, since he had expelled Juan Núñez II de Lara from the Kingdom, if he wished to preserve the respect of the ricoshombres and the nobility, he should be inflexible. Mariana, Juan de; Juan de Mariana (1855). She was initially buried in the disappeared Convent of Santo Domingo el Real in Madrid, and in 1869 her remains were where translated to the crypt of the, This page was last edited on 4 September 2020, at 18:54. [2], After the fall of Napoleon, Joachim Murat, who had succeeded Joseph Bonaparte as king of Naples in 1808, was dethroned in the Neapolitan War, and Ferdinand returned to Naples. The infant John of Castile and Juan Núñez II de Lara predisposed Fernando IV against Henry of Castile and Diego López V de Haro, while the concessions offered by the Portuguese sovereign, who offered to help him if necessary against Henry of Castile, disappointed Ferdinand IV. Ferdinando IV .jpg 1,381 × 1,648; 756 KB. Shortly after being crowned Alfonso de la Cerda and John of Castile, both surrounded the Valladolid municipality of Mayorga, while Henry of Castile parted to the Kingdom of Granada to arrange the peace between the Sultan Muhammed II al-Faqih and Ferdinand IV, since the Granadian troops attacked in those moments in all Andalusia the lands of the King, that were defended, among others, by Alonso Pérez de Guzmán. During the meeting, Diego López V de Haro tried to reconcile Juan Núñez II de Lara with the sovereign, while the latter tried that the Lord of Biscay broke his relations with his ally. He was the last surviving child of Charles III. In the summer of 1295, when the Cortes of Valladolid were finished, the Dowager Queen and Henry of Castile met in Ciudad Rodrigo with King Denis of Portugal, to whom they delivered several localities located near the Portuguese border. He died in the flower of his age, which was twenty-four years and nine months, so that his business was prosperous. In November 1301, when the court was in the city of Burgos, was made public the bull by which Pope Boniface VIII legitimized the marriage of María de Molina with the late King Sancho IV, and therefore her children were legitimate from that moment. He was also King of Gozo. At the same time, the King confiscated the lands of Diego López V de Haro and Juan Alfonso de Haro, Lord of Cameros, and divided them among the ricoshombres. History and legend have intertwined indissolubly in what concerns the death of the monarch, who received at his death the nickname of "the Summoned", because of the mysterious circumstances in which it occurred.