The Sphinx Stele Of Thutmose IV And The Date Of The Exodus . - The idea of monotheism was introduced by Amenhotep II's son Thutmose IV and later called the cult of Aton under his grandson Amenhotep IV (Akhnaton). Both the records of Flavius Josephus and an honest study of the chronology of the period attest to us that an 18th Dynasty pharaoh named Thutmose (called Tethmosis by Josephus, Against Apion 1.91-94, most probably Thutmose III) was the pharaoh of the Exodus. Accessible online in the Karnak project database: Al-Ahram, Fruitful seasons, 21–27 November 2002, Issue No.613, http://www.cfeetk.cnrs.fr/karnak/?iu=2775&hl=en, "22 Ancient Pharaohs Have Been Carried Across Cairo in an Epic 'Golden Parade, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thutmose_IV&oldid=1016106752, Pharaohs of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Articles containing Ancient Egyptian-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The “early” 1446 BC date of the exodus would align the slaughter of infants (Exodus 1:16–21) with either Thutmose I or Amenhotep I, whose reputations would support such an act. Menkheperure Djehutimes (Thutmose) IV c. 1400 – 1390 BCE: The son of Amenhotep II. Num 32:13 And the LORD'S anger was kindled against Israel, and he made them wander in the wilderness forty years, until all the generation, that had done evil in the sight of the LORD, was consumed. The first chapter deals with three major groups of ancient writers. The obvious implication is that Thutmose did not expect to inherit the crown of Egypt and that he had one or more older brothers with prior claim to Egypt’s throne. 15. Those who hold to the Early Date see the exodus taking place in c. 1446 BC, with either Thutmose II/Thutmose III or Thutmose III/Amenhotep II as the pharaohs of the oppression and exodus. Second, the best understanding suggests that Amenhotep’s power did not pass to his eldest son, but rather to Thutmose IV, a younger son. Three passages in the Pentateuch indicate that the Israelites were physically similar to the Egyptian nobility that ruled when the Israelites dwelt there and could not be easily distinguished from them (Genesis 42.8, 50.1-11, Exodus 2.19). Exodus 5:2 - And Pharaoh said, Who [is] the LORD, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? ... Hatshepshut (with any dangerous tendancies against Moses) that could be a part of this Egyptian intrigue, would be Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III, and Amenhotep IV/Anhkenaton, then Tutanhkamon. Israel has been at Kadesh for 12 years when he becomes king and dies the year Joshua crossed the Jordan. He concludes that their early deaths were likely as a result of a familial temporal epilepsy. It was a 'place of the ear' for the god Amun where the god could hear the prayers of the townspeople. Manetho’s accounts of the Exodus involve both Pharaoah’s suggesting that it occurred during the time of joint rule. If the Exodus did take place in 1446-45 B.C. ... Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition by James K. Hoffmeier. He wrote 5, 6 times, but he did not give her. , Thutmose IV also built a unique chapel and peristyle hall against the back or eastern walls of the main Karnak temple building. Of the five pharaohs that are in the date range of the Exodus, based on Biblical timelines and Egyptian conventional chronologies, the reign of Thutmose II falls comfortably within the temporal parameter for the event. The Holy Scriptures does not say Pharaoh drowned in the Red Sea. The ruler of the land at that time was believed to Thutmose II, who was also referred to as Gardiner. THUTMOSE IV (1398–1388 BC) Maintained the vast empire won by Thutmose III without the need of much fighting with Egypt’s rivals, such as Mitanni, who vied for control in the northern regions. In one of the side rooms of his tomb were found nine other royal mummies, including those of Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III, and Merneptah. The tenth and final plague to come upon Egypt was the death of all the firstborn in the land (Exod. 1445 B.C.) Exodus 1446. His son and successor, Thutmose IV, also fits well as the son of the Pharaoh after the Exodus. The exodus occurred in Thutmose III’s 18 year of rule after his mother died. He soon fell asleep and had a dream in which the Sphinx told him that if he cleared away the sand and restored it he would become the next pharaoh. There are two prominent views for the date of the exodus. An inscription between the paws, the “Dream Stela” or “Sphinx Stella,” tells how Thutmose IV was promised kingship by Harmakhis, god of the Sphinx, even though he was not the first-born son of Amehotep IIB. This would agree with Exodus 12:29 which says the pharaoh's first … Thutmose I 1530-1515 ? . A third argument advanced to support the early date for the Exodus is the “dream stele” of Thutmose IV. This means he was not the firstborn son, who would have been the legitimate heir. Bracer of Pharaoh Thutmose IV.  However, Manetho's other figures for the 18th Dynasty are frequently assigned to the wrong kings or simply incorrect, so monumental evidence is also used to determine his reign length. This book is a result of my dissertation entitled "The Date of the Exodus in Ancient Writings." Some scholars speculate that Thutmose ousted his older brother in order to usurp power and then commissioned the Dream Stele in order to justify his unexpected kingship. One of those days it happened that the King’s Son Thut-mose … The length of his reign is not as clear as one would wish. His height was given as 1.646 m (5 ft 4.8 in) but considering that the feet have been broken off post-mortem, his height in life would have been taller. In Exodus 4:19, God commanded Moses to go back to Egypt as all the men who wanted to kill him were already dead. 11:1–6). Historians considered him as a weak and lesser king, and he was greatly dominated by his wife Hatshepsut during his reign. For the exodus-pharaoh, the worst part of God's prediction … Thutmose I 1530-1515 ?  Thutmose IV's rule is significant because he established peaceful relations with Mitanni and married a Mitannian princess to seal this new alliance. Thutmose IV was born to Amenhotep II and Tiaa, but was not actually the crown prince and Amenhotep II's chosen successor to the throne.  The readings of the king's name in these dates are today accepted as referring to the prenomen of Thutmose III—Menkheperre—and not Menkhepe[ru]re Thutmose IV himself. The account parallels the Book of Exodus. Head of Thutmose IV wearing the blue crown. From Amarna, House P 48.1, Egypt. Little is known about his brief ten-year rule. Thutmose III was the Pharaoh of the Exodus who reigned from 1485 to 1430 BC in three phases. The exodus occurred in Thutmose III’s 18 year of rule after his mother died. 1 Kings 6:1. He also … Who are the candidates for the eldest son of Amenhotep II? So far scholars have found no Egyptian records of the death of Amenhotep II"s first-born son.  Thutmose IV called it the tekhen waty or 'unique obelisk.' Tut 99-103 yrs. It has become the common practice of conservative scholars to cite the stele as proof that an older son of Amenhotep II died in the plague of the firstborn.2. While the young prince Thutmose rested after hunting in the Giza area, the god Harmakhis Kheper-Re-Atum appeared to him in a dream and promised him the throne if he would clear away the sand that had partially covered the sphinx. His son and successor, Thutmose IV, also fits well as the son of the Pharaoh after the Exodus. Those who hold to the Late Date set the exodus somewhere around 1250 BC, which would make Seti I and Ramesses II the two pharaohs. Regarding the authenticity of the stele, most experts are agreed that in its present version it is a late document, probably dating from Dynasty XXI at the earliest.3 It is, however, extremely probable that although the present Sphinx Stele was inscribed in or after the eleventh century B.C. Historians considered him as a weak and lesser king, and he was greatly dominated by his wife Hatshepsut during his reign. Firstly, ancient Jewish writers will be considered that especially mention chronology concerning the Exodus. Amenhotep II (Aakheperure) (second born son) 25. This means that Thutmose IV was not the firstborn son, who would have been the legitimate heir. The Pharaoh of the Exodus did not die in the Red Sea. When he wrote my grandfather 7 times, then only under such pressure, did he give her. In 2012 a surgeon at Imperial College London analysed the early death of Thutmose IV and the premature deaths of other Eighteenth Dynasty pharaohs (including Tutankhamun and Akhenaten). Neues Museum, Berlin, Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. The papyrus describes violent upheavals in Egypt, starvation, drought, escape of slaves (with the wealth of the Egyptians), and death throughout the land. His height was given as 1.646 m (5 ft 4.8 in) but considering that the feet have been broken off post-mortem, his height in life would have been taller. Defenders of the early date of the exodus (ca. Invariably such searches culminate in references to the Sphinx Stele of Thutmose IV,1 the son of the pharaoh of the exodus, Amenhotep II. Elliot Smith estimated his age to be 25–28 years or possibly older. His hair, which is … For the exodus-pharaoh, the worst part of God's prediction of judgment was that his own firstborn son would die. BSpade 16:2 (Spring 2003) p. 48 Interestingly enough, John Garstang, who excavated the site of ancient Jericho (city “D” or “IV” in his survey), came to the conclusion that the destruction of the city took place around 1400 (The Story of Jericho, 1948, p. 122). No campaigns after Exodus. (EA 29). Exodus 14:30 (The Israel Bible TM) Parade of Pharaohs in Cairo (Photo via Twitter Svend Olling) ... Ahmose Nefertari, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III, Seti I, Ramses II, Merenptah, Seti II, Siptah, Ramses III, Ramses IV, Ramses V, Ramses VI and Ramses IX. it is a faithful restoration of a substantially identical text commissioned by Thutmose IV.4 We may therefore accept the stele’s contents as authentic. Thutmose IV went to some pains to legitimatize his right to the throne. His prenomen or royal name, Menkheperure, means "Established in forms is Re. Hatshepsut reign = 1503-1482 reigned 22 years (Candidate for Pharaoh of Exodus) 1486 B.C. The “Dream Stele” of Thutmose IV. The firstborn son of Amenhotep II had evidently died prior to taking the throne of Egypt. 1431-1406. Betsy Bryan, who penned a biography of Thutmose IV, says that Thutmose IV's Konosso stela appears to refer to a minor desert patrol action on the part of the king's forces to protect certain gold-mine routes in Egypt's Eastern Desert from occasional attacks by the Nubians. The second question deserves deeper investigation. His hair, which is parted in the middle, is about 16 cm (6.3 in) long and dark reddish-brown. 1406-1396. Reeves, Tuthmosis IV as 'great-grandfather' of Tut῾ankhamun, in: Göttinger Miszellen 56 (1982), 65-69. " This small alabaster chapel and peristyle hall of Thutmose IV has today been carefully restored by French scholars from the Centre Franco-Egyptien D'Étude des Temple de Karnak (CFEETK) mission in Karnak..  Two other dated objects, one dated to a Year 19 and another year 20, have been suggested as possibly belonging to him, but neither have been accepted as dating to his reign. The Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt. He suppressed a minor uprising in Nubia in his 8th year (attested in his Konosso stela) around 1393 BC and was referred to in a stela as the Conqueror of Syria, but little else has been pieced together about his military exploits. - Exodus 14:6 suggests that Pharaoh personally assembled the army and possibly even accompanied them at the start, but no … (Archaeological evidence reveals that the wall of Jericho fell c. 1400 BCE.) AMENHOTEP III 1390-1352 The forearms are crossed over the chest, right over left.  He was succeeded to the throne by his son, Amenhotep III. Due to the absence of higher dates for Thutmose IV after his Year 8 Konosso stela, Manetho's figures here are usually accepted. Thutmose IV as a Candidate for the Eldest Son of Amenhotep II. Like most of the Thutmoside kings, he built on a grand scale. Egyptian kings in solo years: 0-24 yrs. According to the Good News article, it was Amenhotep II who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Upon the death of Thutmose in 1450, Amenhotep II assumed the sole leadership of the country.”. This would account for both the untimely death of Thutmose IV and also his religious vision described on the Dream Stele, due to this type of epilepsy's association with intense spiritual visions and religiosity. In this famous stele, set up between the forepaws of the great sphinx at Giza in year one of the reign of Thutmose IV, the young king recounts an incident that occurred some years earlier during the reign of his father Amenhotep II. This is at least implied in the so-called dream stela found at the base of the Great Sphinx near Memphis. It was transported to the grounds of the Circus Maximus in Rome by Emperor Constantius II in 357 AD and, later, "re-erected by Pope Sixtus V in 1588 at the Piazza San Giovanni" where it is today known as the Lateran Obelisk. 18th Dynasty. have long sought Egyptian inscriptional evidence of the deaths of Egypt’s firstborn sons as described in Exod 12:29 ff.  There were once chronological reconstructions which gave him a reign as long as 34–35 years. If Thutmose II was in fact the Pharaoh of the: Exodus, there are some very interesting coincidences to support this. have long sought Egyptian inscriptional evidence of the deaths of Egypt’s firstborn sons as described in Exod 12:29 ff. Builds up elite military force, 2nd to none in the Middle East. , In April 2021 his mummy was moved from the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities to the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization along with those of 17 other kings and 4 queens in an event termed the Pharaohs' Golden Parade. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich. Considering the racially tumultuous history… In 1483 B.C., Moses was exiled from Egypt by this Thutmose upon the death of Hatshepsut, Moses’ foster mother and protector…. This promise implies … THUTMOSE III 1504-1450 Takes over rule of Egypt in 1483, rules Egypt for 22 years and dies. If Amenhotep II was the exodus-pharaoh, his firstborn son had to die without the chance to … His successor was Thutmose IV (1425-1417 B.C. I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go. JETS 22:2 (June 1979) p. 97. The ruler of the land at that time was believed to Thutmose II, who was also referred to as Gardiner. Thutmoses IV (Menkheperure) 10. Thutmose's grandfather Thutmose III almost certainly acceded the throne in either 1504 or 1479, based upon two lunar observances during his reign, and ruled for nearly 54 years. Amenhotep II 24-33 yrs. After completing the restoration of the Sphinx, he placed a carved stone tablet, now known as the Dream Stele, between the two paws of the Sphinx. Thutmose IV 33-71 yrs. This stele records a dream of Thutmose IV in which he was promised the throne of Egypt. (2) Was Thutmose IV old enough before the exodus to hunt and have dreams such as the one recounted on the stele? Manetho credits him a reign of 9 years and 8 months. Pharaoh of the Exodus Thutmose II 1515?-1505 Died prematurely Hatshepsut 1515?-1484 Married her brother Thutmose 11 Thutmose III 1504-1450 Married Hatshepsut's daughter Merytre Thutmose IV 1415?-1405 Amenhotep III 1405-1370 Amenhotep IV 1370-1352 Also called Akenaten the heretic king Tutankhamun 1349? Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. If Thutmose II was in fact the Pharaoh of the: Exodus, there are some very interesting coincidences to support this. Exodus occurs in spring of 1446BC . Amenhotep II, the seventh Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, notably suffered a lack of military campaigns beginning in 1446 BC (Exodus 14:28), and his heir, Thutmose IV, was criticized for being a less-than-legitimate successor (Exodus 11:4–5; 12:29).  Today, however, most scholars ascribe him a 10-year reign from 1401 to 1392 BC, within a small margin of error. AMENHOTEP II 1452-1417 Takes throne 6 years before Moses returns from Midian. Dating the beginning of the reign of Thutmose IV is difficult to do with certainty because he is several generations removed from the astronomical dates which are usually used to calculate Egyptian chronologies, and the debate over the proper interpretation of these observances has not been settled. Only Thutmose II remains for discussion. An examination of his mummy conducted by Grafton Elliot Smithrevealed that he was extremely emaciated at the time of his death. Thutmose IV as a Candidate for the Eldest Son of Amenhotep II. In this famous stele, set up between the forepaws of the great sphinx at Giza in year one … Pharaoh of the Exodus Thutmose II 1515?-1505 Died prematurely Hatshepsut 1515?-1484 Married her brother Thutmose 11 Thutmose III 1504-1450 Married Hatshepsut's daughter Merytre Thutmose IV 1415?-1405 Amenhotep III 1405-1370 Amenhotep IV 1370-1352 Also called Akenaten the heretic king Tutankhamun 1349?